what happened with the money?

Try to get more money before the money run.

Types of Diagram

PPC, Demand and supply, elasticity.


Cartoon is easy way to understand economy.

economy for you.

lecturer economy

profesional lecturer.

Wednesday, 27 June 2012

Our group member; BNM

BNM group

Assignment : Technology in Education

Mior Mohamad Bohari Haji Jamaluddin
G 1026381
Economics' Lecturer
Kolej MARA Kuala Nerang

Mohd Ramdan Bin Ibrahim
Economics' Lecturer
Kolej Profesional MARA Ayer Molek

Amir Bin Jusoh
G 1029273
Economics' Lecturer
Kolej Profesional MARA Bandar Penawar

Faizah Binti Idris
G 1021100
Economics' Lecturer
Kolej Profesional MARA Beranang


Monday, 25 June 2012

What Production - Picture

What is Production Function ?
Factors of production means inputs and finished goods means output. Input decides the quantity of output i.e. output depends upon input. Input is the starting point and output is the end point of production process and such input-output relationship is called as "Production Function".

All factors of production like land, labour, capital and entrepreneur are required altogether at a time to produce a commodity. In economics, production means creation or an addition of utility.

square 4 Factors of Production In Economics - Meaning ↓

Factors of Production

Factors of production refers to inputs required for conducting production. Input is the starting point of every production activity.

According to Prof. Benham, "Anything that contributes towards output is a factor of production."

Mere existence of anything doesn't make it a factor of production but its contribution in production process is a necessary condition. Dr. Alfred Marshall described factors of production as "Agents of Production". Cooperation among factors is essential to produce anything because production is not a job of single factor.


Microeconomics essay assignment

Students, you must obtain specific approval for your topic from the instructor before beginning! If you turn in a project without prior approval it will be a fail.

Maximum pages, including graphs: 15.
You must footnote sources and you must not copy and paste information from the internet. If you use internet sources, either put those sources in quotations or put those sources INTO YOUR OWN WORDS. Plagiarized sources will result in failure.

1. Compare prices of same product/service in at least ten different places. It can be in Prague, or in and out of Prague, or out of Prague (including via internet). It can be a common product or a luxury product, a common service or a luxury service. Describe the product or service.

2. Describe in tabular form where you found the product and the price (date, place, shop, address phone).

3. Here describe the basic findings: prices are the same or different.

4. Here use economic analysis (lectures/textbook/internet) as to why answer in #3 is the way it is. I recommend you use in particular economic analyses including competition, such as perfect versus imperfect competition, supply & demand theory, and price collusion. Also, do check out a study of the ATM industry, which you might get some ideas from regarding writing style and analysis:

I further recommend, that you do the following google searches: use these words: pricing imperfect competition, multinational firms pricing and see what you can find.

5. Here describe an actual investigation with the store manager (or other insider) about price setting.

6. Here include your conclusions and your opinion as to whether the assignment was useful or not. Please include here a discussion of how your expectations about economics were fulfilled (or not) by your empirical discoveries in this research.

Make sure at least one manager (insider) person will talk to you before choosing your topic!

Good luck and begin your research by clicking on the links below:

Demand v/s Quantity Demand - Video

Demand v/s Quantity Demand

The quantity of lemonade sold is affected by both its own price and other non-price factors.

Tutorial 1 - Production Possibilities Curve

Please answer all questions.

1. Define economics?


2. Explain each of the economy's problems below.

i. Scarcity

ii. Choice

iii. Opportunity cost 

3. Xplain the factors of production.

i. ---------------------------


ii. ---------------------------


iii. ---------------------------


Sunday, 24 June 2012

economy system - Video version

Economy system

The video show the differences between command economies and market economies. Focus on mixed economy towards the end

example final exam ; chapter 1

Example of final exam questions
"Chapter 1"

Section A; Multiple choice questions.

1. Scarcity is a problem:
A. measured by the amount of goods available.
B. of the poor, but not the rich.
C. because human wants are unlimited while resources are limited.
D. only in industrialized economies

2. Which of the following is a characteristics of capitalism
A. an economic system characterized by private ownership of resources and market.
B. an economic system that include a mixture of command and market system.
C. a system that answers the what, How, and For Whom question by central authority.
D. an economic system that follows the syariah.

3. Which of the following is not a resource?
A. Land.
B. Labor.
C. Money.
D. Capital.

4. The analysis of the behaviour decision-making units is the definition of :
A. macroeconomics.
B. microeconomics.
C. positive economics
D. normative economics.

5. Which of the following is a normative statement?
A. The government must lower the prize of essential goods to decrease the inflation.
B. the price of this shoes is RM50.
C. I get grade A in macroeconomics exam.
D. An increase in the collage tuition fees will cause a few of students to apply for collage.

6. Which of the following might be considered to be a characteristic of a planned economy?

A. There is no incentive for people to work hard.
B. Goods and services produced reflect consumer sovereignty.
C. Price is relatively unimportant as a means of allocating resources.
D. All income is completely evenly distributed.

Section B;

(a) Differentiate between microeconomics and macroeconomics. (4 marks)
(b) Define the Production Possibilities Curve (PPC). State fours (4) assumptions to illustrate the PPC. (6 marks)
(c) State five characteristics of free market economic system. (5 marks)
(Total: 15 marks)

Section C; Quantitative Question


1. The following table shows the production possibilities for motorcycle and laptop.
(a) Fill in the opportunity cost(motorcycles forgone) of producing the first through the fifth laptops. (2 marks)
(b) Referring to above table, draw the production possibility curve. (4 marks)
(c) Based on the diagram (b), explain the concept of scarcity, choice and opportunity cost. (6 marks)
(d) Between which points (combinations) is the opportunity cost per thousands unit of laptops the highest? (2 marks)
(e) Label point Y inside the curve. Explain why this is inefficient point. (3 marks)
(f) Label point Z outside the curve. Explain why this is an unattainable point. (3 marks)
(g) Based on the diagram, identify all efficient points and explain why these points are efficient. (5 marks)
(h) Does this production possibilities curve reflect the law of increasing opportunity costs? (3 marks)
(i) What is the shape of the production possibilities curve? (2 marks)
(Total: 30 marks)

Friday, 22 June 2012

Positive economy statement versus normative economy statement.

Positive economy statement versus normative economy statement.

i. Positive economy statement is a statement which based on facts and not value judgement. Can be tested and verified.
Example: Ethiopia is the poorest nation in the world.

ii. Normative economy statement is a statement which is bases on value judgement and on personal opinion. Cannot be tested.
Example: The government of Ethiopia is very inefficient.

Basic economics concepts

The basic economic concepts.
There are 3 basic economic concepts in relation to economics definition.
i. Scarcity
The problems of economics arise because we do not have enough resources to produce everything we want. The factors of production are limited and the amount of output that can be produced is also limited.

It means that there are not enough available goods for everyone to freely take as much as they want. Due to this, we have to choose the best alternative of goods and services to be produced by the society.

ii. Choice
Because of the resources in the world are limited, we cannot satisfy all our wants and force us to choose. Choice involves a rational decision to be made due to scarcity of resources in order to satisfy unlimited human wants. A choice has to be made among several wants which involves some trade off known as opportunity cost.

iii. Opportunity cost
Opportunity cost is concerned with the problem of choice and the fact of scarcity, forces us to make choices. So, that opportunity cost is defined as the value of the best alternative foregone when a choice is made.

Dina has RM5 and she would like to buy two things: a book and a pen which cost RM5 each (unlimited wants but limited resources). Dina has to choose either to purchase a book or a pen which would satisfy her needs (choices). If Dina chooses the book, then the pen is the opportunity cost because it is the second best alternative which she has to forgone.

Thursday, 21 June 2012

economics systems

Economic systems

A. Free market economy / capitalist / laissez faire


- Is an economy system was operation without government intervention.


- Decisions are taken by individual and firm with no government intervention.
- It usually associated with a pure capitalist, where land and capital are privately owned.
- The price mechanism used in this system whereby changes in price in response to change in demand and supply have the effect of making demand equal to supply.


- Individual are free to make their own economic choice
- Freedom to workers and firm to choose where to work and what production methods to use.


- Existence of wide gap between the rich and the poor.
- Existence of unemployment problem.

B. Centrally planned or command economy / socialist economy

- Is economy was fully controller by government.


- Decision are taken by the government or central authorities
- It usually associated with a socialist or communist economy system, where land and capital are collectively owned. The government or central authorities plans the allocation of resources.


- Decisions of allocation of resources always are in the interests of society as a whole and with specific national goals.
- Unemployment could be largely avoided if the government carefully planned the allocation of labour.
- Same income distribution
- Produces the goods and services at efficiency level.


- Mistake decide in economy (decision made by some people only)
- Technology and innovation are undeveloped because all productions are decided by government.

C. Mixed economy

- Is a economy system that incorporates a mixture of private and government ownership or control ( capitalism and socialist)


- This system use market mechanism and allow government intervention in economy activities.
- Price level determine by price’s mechanism but basic economy’s problem resolved together between government and private.
- Individual and firm free to have properties.

- The government will try to reduce gap of income between rich and poor people. ( taxes and subsidies)
- Government will also control the existence of monopolies.


- Business freedom is not totally offered for enterprise.

D. Islamic economy

- Economy which uses Allah's creation natural resources with most efficient and fair way based on Islamic laws.


- Al Quran and Hadith was the main source in Islamic economics’ activities.
- Individual free to own property
- individual no give priority to profit in business
- fair competition permitted
- free to decide in economics


- Good in the world and afterworld
- Free competition